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doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a013789 Copyright © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved

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Abstract

Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture models has brought new insights into the mechanisms underlying the establishment and maintenance of higher-order epithelial tissue architecture, and in the dynamic remodeling of cell polarity that often occurs during development of epithelial organs. Here we discuss some important aspects of mammalian epithelial morphogenesis, from the establishment of cell polarity to epithelial tissue generation.

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Epithelia are cohesive sheets of cells lining exterior and interior surfaces of our bodies, constituting a selective barrier between the body and its environment. Some of our major organs, such as kidneys, lung, mammary gland, and liver, also contain hollow spaces—or lumens—lined by simple or stratified epithelial layers that selectively permit the exchange of nutrients, hormones, gases, and cells between different parts of the body. Those glandular organs are made of two kinds of building units: spherical cysts (also named acini in the mammary gland, alveoli in the lung, or follicles in the thyroid) and elongated tubules (or ducts) that assemble into complex branched tubular structures ( Nilimary Frayed Tiered Stretchknit Midi Dress Black Theory GjoogV9uhT
).

To achieve their specific functions, epithelial cells divide their plasma membrane into structurally and functionally different domains. Apical membranes line the lumen and constitute an exchange interface with other parts of the body. They contain most of the proteins necessary for the specific functions of organs, such as secretion. The lateral and basal surfaces interact with surrounding extracellular milieu and communicate with contacting epithelial cells and stromal cells. The unique functions of apical and basolateral membrane domains depend on oriented vesicle trafficking pathways that specifically segregate proteins and lipids into the domain in which they are required. Establishment of epithelial polarity is closely linked to the establishment of the apical junctional complex (AJC), which includes the tight junctions (also named zonula occludens) and adherens junctions (or zonula adherens). Maintenance of each domain identity is ensured by tight junctions, which are composed of three families of transmembrane proteins: occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAM). These proteins are organized into a tight seal that prevents the diffusion of proteins and outer leaflet lipids between apical and lateral surfaces, and constitute an important selective barrier regulating the diffusion of molecules through the paracellular space. Basal to the tight junctions, adherens junctions form an adhesive belt that encircles each epithelial cell just underneath the apical surface. Adherens junction transmembrane components include cadherins, nectins, and nectin-like molecules, which provide cohesion between cells of the epithelial sheet ( Shin et al. 2006 ; Natural Cow Suede Sandal Womens Open Toe Sandals La Strada zBor0Qx
; Martin-Belmonte and Perez-Moreno 2012 ).

Data USA implements a “similarity” measure to suggest potentially relevant universities for comparison purposes. When users view a particular university profile, data for “similar” universities are automatically shown to provide additional context for the data and visualizations that users see. We measure similarity between universities is by analyzing relationships in admissions criteria (admission rates and SAT scores) alongside patterns in the relative concentration of graduates in particular areas of study.

To calculate the similarity metric, we segment universities into groups based on their parent Carnegie classification group. For every university in the same Carnegie group, we calculate the number of degree completions across the 2-digit Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) Codes. We then compute the logarithm of the KNITWEAR Cardigans SOLOTRE wkNvbqE9Z
(RCA) for the course competitions for each school. Next, we join in data on admission rates and total SAT scores for the school’s 75th percentile. Then, we take the log RCAs values alongside the admissions and test data and feed it through a dimensionality reduction process known as Stuart Weitzman Woman Pipelopez Patentleather Loafers Black Size 355 Stuart Weitzman XxNXZtohFh
. The metric for the t-SNE process is defined as the squared weighted euclidean distance between two university vectors. The weights are assigned as follows: Each of the 38 CIP codes have a combined overall weight of approximately 45%, while the admission rate and SAT scores comprise the remaining 55%. The result of the t-SNE process is a projection from the 40-dimensional vector to a two-dimensional vector where the most similar universities are those with the shortest distance.

Data from the Dartmouth Atlas reports only two racial categories: black and non-black. Separate analyses of the Hispanic population are challenging because fewer than half of self-designated Hispanics are coded as such in the Medicare data, Hispanics constitute less than 6% of the elderly population (as counted by the U.S. Census), and they are highly clustered in a few communities, making it difficult to compare communities and regions. Although racial designation for Asians and American Indians is more accurate, their small numbers (less than 3%) also limit the precision of race-specific analyses. At the same time, excluding any of these populations from the regional comparisons in this report was judged to be undesirable. We therefore restricted the analyses in the current report to blacks and non-blacks, and, for ease of exposition, we refer to the non-black population as white. These challenges, and the future growth of the Hispanic population, underscore the importance of improving the coding of race and ethnicity.

See pages 4-5 of this report for more details.

The Data USA platform Includes data on all 50 US states as well as Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico.

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